Model 6 includes measures of big events and immigrant strength, as well as political opportunities for elected officials favoring inclusionary policy making. We also move beyond past literature and suggest that growing immigrant populations and political contexts alone do not help us understand the introduction of in-state tuition policies in U.S. states but that major national events related to immigration will prompt symbolic political action. 2.The language used to describe immigrants without legal standing in the United States is often contested. As adults are exposed to political objects, their attitudes towards that object are a product of its symbolic elements and the affect attached to those symbols (Sears, 1993). The law affirmed that states could not declare that undocumented immigrants meet in-state tuition requirements because they lack legal status in the state where they reside (Olivas 2004). 4437 and concurrent immigrant rights protests shaped the national immigration debate, prompting state lawmakers to restrict in-state tuition for undocumented students, but it did not have a discernable direct effect on inclusionary bills.

Self-interest vs. symbolic politics in policy attitudes and presidential voting, A schematic variant of symbolic politics theory, as applied to racial and gender equality, Lessons of welfare: Policy design, political learning, and political action. (2018). State officials also introduce bills for symbolic reasons, such as to increase their popularity in the eyes of the electorate, reassure the public that they are addressing a major problem, or signal boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior (Stolz 2002). 492 (2008), and South Carolina H.B. We use the terms undocumented and unauthorized interchangeably. Mettler (2002) shows how the GI Bill increased membership in civic organizations and spurred political engagement. All Rights Reserved. Five (2 expansive, 3 restrictive) made it through both houses but were vetoed by their states’ governors. 14.Additional analyses reveal that the interaction between percentage foreign born and percentage conservative voting pool is statistically significant, suggesting that at low levels of immigrant strength, a conservative political context has a positive effect on the odds of the introduction of bills prohibiting in-state tuition for undocumented immigrants. And in the case of health insurance coverage, Americans could even be risking their health and financial well-being to voice their opposition to the ACA. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. These results are not consistent with the symbolic politics interaction model’s predictions regarding the ability of big events to influence inclusionary policy making.

Turning to the effects of the control variables, we see that states’ unemployment rates, per K−12 pupil expenditure, introduction of bills granting in-state tuition in the prior state-session, and total population increase the likelihood of introducing inclusionary legislation, though some of these effects are marginal at p < .10. 4437, politicians in states with large shares of immigrants viewed this growing demographic as a “natural constituency” and thus were reluctant to propose restrictive education-related bills. Applicants must pay a fee of $465 and must renew their status every two years. Although the direct effects of immigrant strength and political opportunity are not part of our model, increasing immigrant population and rising immigrant political power should deter restrictive action and motivate inclusionary action. Results from model 1 indicate that exclusionary policy making is more likely after the House passed H.R. Exploring the bases of partisanship in the American electorate: Social identity vs. ideology, Rumors and health care reform: Experiments in political misinformation, Partisan bias in factual beliefs about politics, Personality approaches to political behavior, The self-interest motive in American public opinion, The politics of policy: The initial mass political effects of Medicaid expansion in the states, Genetic foundations of political behavior, Self-interest and public opinion toward smoking restrictions and cigarette taxes, The Medicaid expansion and attitudes toward the Affordable Care Act: Testing for a policy feedback on mass opinion, Response to Aldrich’s “Rational Choice and Turnout”: Rationality and political participation, Political ideology: Its structure, functions, and elective affinities, Prejudice and politics: Symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life, Self-interest, symbolic attitudes, and support for public policy: A multilevel analysis, Cognitive links between economic grievances and political responses, Policy uptake as political behavior: Evidence from the Affordable Care Act, Bringing the state back in to civic engagement: Policy feedback effects of the G.I.