Frederick II was a Holy Emperor a member of House of Hohenstaufen of the medieval era and is often referred to as ‘Stupor Mundi’ or wonder of the world. He confiscated the estates of the rebel magnates, reduced the Diet to impotence by a new constituent ordinance (1627), and forcibly catholicized Bohemia. He worked to unite the Holy Roman Empire under his rule. During his reign, Frederick II succeeded in re-establishing authority over much of the empire, but he remained in constant battle with the pope and parts of his empire throughout his reign. He also became the king of Jerusalem in 1229. To do this, he supported the growth of urban centers with their own administrative government. 1194. He was also crowned king of Sicily in 1198 after the death of his father. He faced conflicts with the papacy and was excommunicated four times. He appreciated Arabic culture, and this led to his interest in scientific ideas. Princeton Joins Open Education Movement, But How Many Students Will Benefit? He was the son of Emperor Henry VI and Constance of Hauteville. Author of. He was named Antichrist by Pope Gregory IX. Frederick was born in Italy in 1194 and was the son of the emperor Henry VI. He married Constance of Aragon on 15 Aug 1209, Yolande of Jerusalem on 9 Nov 1225 and Isabella of England in Worms, Germany on 15 Jul 1235. After his victory over the Swedes (September 1634) at Nördlingen, Ferdinand reached a compromise with the Protestant princes in the Peace of Prague (1635) and, in 1636, succeeded in having his son Ferdinand elected king of the Romans (successor-designate to the emperor). © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. A crusade is a holy war. Rather than joining the Fifth Crusade in 1217, he sent soldiers to Egypt without his leadership. Though an infant he was elected King of Germany by his father. In an attempt to declare power over each other, both the king and the pope declared each other powerless. He was only three years old, and Constance of Hauteville was made Regent. Frederick fought but was defeated near Parma in 1248. Jessica has taught college History and has a Master of Arts in History. In the prime of his life Ferdinand was described as a blue-eyed, somewhat corpulent, middle-sized man who wore Spanish court dress. A very pious Catholic, he especially favoured the Jesuits. The Welfs supported Pope Gregory and his authority while the Hohenstaufens supported the authority of the German king. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ferdinand-II-Holy-Roman-emperor, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Ferdinand II. Yet, basing his policies chiefly on religious principles, he suffered from discrepancies between his religious goals and the maxims of a modern raison d’état. In turn, agriculture and industry in general were fostered. Select a subject to preview related courses: Frederick was formally crowned king of Germany in 1212. All rights reserved. Eventually, for reasons of state, Ferdinand reluctantly gave his consent to a second dismissal and the assassination of Wallenstein, who had treacherously entered into negotiations with the enemy (1634). Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of the archduke Charles, the ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola), and Maria, a daughter of Albrecht V, duke of Bavaria. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Emperor Henry VI died in 1197, and Frederick II was crowned on 17 May 1198 as King of Sicily. His son Henry held the title King of Romans. 173 lessons The pope said the king was no longer king, and the king said the pope was no longer pope. An error occurred trying to load this video. He entered into a conflict with his son but easily overpowered imprisoned him. He invaded some of Frederick's lands and gained the support of others in his quest. By promoting the Counter-Reformation, Ferdinand II set the course of Austrian Habsburg policy for the next century. Instead, he made arrangements to ensure his son Henry would be king of Germany, securing his imperial rights.